Hydrogen as a carrier of renewable energy has become an important aspect for the energy transition. It is very versatile as a fuel and is considered for a variety of applications, such as stationary gas turbines, aero-engines, industrial and household burners, and internal combustion engines, which spans a wide range of operating conditions in temperature, pressure, and mixing conditions. There is a need for predictive combustion simulations, but hydrogen combustion is complex because of its special properties, which include the particularly high burning velocity, wide flammability limits, and high diffusivity. Especially the latter can lead in premixed systems to thermo-diffusive flame instabilities, which strongly impact fuel consumption speeds in both laminar and turbulent flames. Also, non-premixed combustion is impacted by hydrogen’s high diffusivity and special combustion chemistry. This section includes different sets of pure hydrogen flames with fully premixed, partially premixed, and non-premixed cases.
Simple Hydrogen Jet Flames:
Simple non-premixed jet flames of hydrogen were the first target flames adopted by the TNF Workshop, and experimental results on velocity and scalar profiles were compared with RANS simulations at TNF2 (Heppenheim 1995). The experimental data sets are listed here as well as on the Simple Flames page.
- H2 and H2/He Jet Flames (Sandia/ETH Zurich)
- H2/N2 Jet Flames (TU Darmstadt)
- H2/N2 Jet Flames (DLR Stuttgart)
Swirl and Bluff Body Hydrogen Flames:
- Hydrogen/air dual swirl coaxial injector – HYLON (IMFT, Toulouse)
- Bluff-body flames to be added